Ärztinnen und Ärzte in einer Sitzung

Affective Neurosciences

Understanding emotions and treating depression.

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We work at CharitéUniversitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin, and have our research base at the Center for Cognitive Neuroscience at Freie Universität Berlin.

Our main interest is the investigation of human emotions. We try to better understand the influence of emotions on well-being and memory function and their modulation by electromagnetic fields, direct current stimulation or pharmacological interventions. The higher-ranking goal is the translation of new findings into clinical practice. Therefore, we study the efficacy of new interventions in the treatment of depression and other stress-related disorders.

Our second focus is to better understand the consequences of forced migration on mental health. Here, at the interface of academic medicine and foreign aid, we try to develop and establish new treatment programs that are both culture sensitive and easily accessible.

We have obligated ourselves to a broad, interdisciplinary work in due consideration of clinical, cultural and neuroscientifical perspectives.


In our clinic, more than 2000 patients with affective disorders are treated per year. Patients can register for one of our special consultations and get more information on treatment options with non-invasive brain stimulation.

Selected Projects

The most important goal of our group is to improve treatment options for patients with depression or other stress-related disorders by developing and establishing new treatment strategies.

PsychotherapiePlus (BMBF)

This project (contact: Sabine Aust) is funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. The aim is to investigate whether cognitive behavioral therapy can be augmented by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in the treatment of depression. It is a multicenter trial including study sites in Munich, Freiburg and Tübingen. The project is part of the German Center for Brain Stimulation, which, in turn, belongs to the German “Forschungsnetz für Psychische Erkrankungen” Patients who are interested in becoming a part of the study can get more information here To participate it is necessary to understand and speak German, since psychotherapy will be provided in German only.

DepressionDC (BMBF)

This project (contact: Felizitas Ehlen) is funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. The aim of this clinical trial is to investigate the efficacy of a combined therapy of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and antidepressant medication. It is a multicenter trial managed by Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich, further study centers include Freiburg and Tübingen. The project is part of the German Center for Brain Stimulation, which, in turn, belongs to the German “Forschungsnetz für Psychische Erkrankungen”.

Depression Prediction Study

This project (contact: Simone Grimm) aims at developing clinical, neurochemical und neuroimaging parameters to predict individual responses to antidepressant treatment. In particular, we focus on brain stimulation and ketamine. To detect relevant parameters, we apply different techniques such as structural and functional MRI and investigate a number of clinical variables.


This project (contact: Simone Grimm) is funded by the European Union and aims at developing a clinical decision support system to improve personalized treatment of psychiatric disorders. Therefore, a battery of techniques from neuroimaging and bioinformatics are combined to identify recurrent patterns associated with a response to treatment. Please visit the project site  for further Information.



  • Bajbouj M. Mechanisms of Electroconvulsive therapy. In Hamani, Holtzheimer, Lozano, Mayberg (Eds). Neuromodulation in Psychiatry. Wiley 2016; 455-466
  • Harden KP, Wrzus C, Luong G, Grotzinger A, Bajbouj M, Rauers A, Wagner GG, Riediger M. Diurnal coupling between testosterone and cortisol from adolescence to older adulthood.Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2016;73:79-90
  • Mungee A, Burger M, Bajbouj M. No Effect of Cathodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Fear Memory in Healthy Human Subjects. Brain Sci. 2016 Nov 4;6(4).
  • Huebl J, Brücke C, Merkl A, Bajbouj M, Schneider GH, Kühn AA. Processing of emotional stimuli is reflected by modulations of beta band activity in the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex in patients with treatment resistant depression. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci. 2016 Mar 24, in press
  • Jefee-Bahloul H, Bajbouj M, Alabdullah J, Hassan G, Barkil-Oteo A. Mental health in Europe's Syrian refugee crisis. Lancet Psychiatry. 2016 Apr;3(4):315-7.
  • Seehausen M, Kazzer P, Bajbouj M, Heekeren HR, Jacobs AM, Klann-Delius G, Menninghaus W, Prehn K. Effects of empathic social responses on the emotions of the recipient. Brain Cogn. 2016 Mar;103:50-61.
  • Accolla EA, Aust S, Merkl A, Schneider GH, Kühn AA, Bajbouj M, Draganski B. Deep brain stimulation of the posterior gyrus rectus region for treatment resistant depression. J Affect Disord. 2016 Apr;194:33-7.
  • Qin P, Grimm S, Duncan NW, Fan Y, Huang Z, Lane T, Weng X, Bajbouj M, Northoff G. Spontaneous activity in default-mode network predicts ascription of self-relatedness to stimuli. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci. 2016 Apr;11(4):693-702.
  • Merkl A, Neumann WJ, Huebl J, Aust S, Horn A, Krauss JK, Dziobek I, Kuhn J, Schneider GH, Bajbouj M, Kühn AA. Modulation of Beta-Band Activity in the Subgenual Anterior Cingulate Cortex during Emotional Empathy in Treatment-Resistant Depression. Cereb Cortex. 2016 Jun;26(6):2626-38.
  • Ernst J., Hock A., Henning A., Seifritz E., Boeker H., Grimm S. (2016). Increased pregenual anterior cingulate glucose and lactate concentrations in major depressive disorder. Molecular Psychiatry 22(1): 113-19.
  • Scheidegger M., Henning A., Walter M., Boeker H., Weigand A., Seifritz E., Grimm S. (2016). Ketamine administration reduces amygdalo-hippocampal reactivity to emotional stimulation. Hum Brain Mapp. 37(5): 1941-52.
  • Lehmann M., Seifritz E., Walter M., Boeker H., Henning A., Scheidegger M., Grimm S. (2016). Differential effects of rumination and distraction on ketamine induced modulation of resting state functional connectivity and reactivity of regions within the default- mode network. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci 11(8): 1227-35.
  • Scheidegger M., Henning A., Walter M., Boeker H., Weigand A., Seifritz E., Grimm S. (2016). Effects of ketamine on cognition-emotion interaction in the brain. Neuroimage 124: 8-15.


  • Gärtner M, Irrmischer M, Winnebeck E, Fissler M, Huntenburg JM, Schroeter TA, Bajbouj M, Linkenkaer-Hansen K, Nikulin VV, Barnhofer T. Aberrant Long-Range Temporal Correlations in Depression Are Attenuated after Psychological Treatment. Front Hum Neurosci. 2017 Jun 28;11:340.
  • Grimm S, Wirth K, Fan Y, Weigand A, Gärtner M, Feeser M, Dziobek I, Bajbouj M, Aust S. The interaction of corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor gene and early life stress on emotional empathy. Behav Brain Res. 2017 Jun 30;329:180-185.
  • Gärtner M, Grimm S, Aust S, Fan Y, von Scheve C, Bajbouj M. The interplay of genetic and environmental factors in shaping well-being across the lifespan: Evidence from the serotonin transporter gene. Aging Ment Health. 2017 Jul 7:1-7.
  • Padberg F, Kumpf U, Mansmann U, Palm U, Plewnia C, Langguth B, Zwanzger P, Fallgatter A, Nolden J, Burger M, Keeser D, Rupprecht R, Falkai P, Hasan A, Egert S, Bajbouj M. Prefrontal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) as treatment for major depression: study design and methodology of a multicenter triple blind randomized placebo controlled trial (DepressionDC). Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2017 Feb 28.
  • Bajbouj M, Alabdullah J, Ahmad S, Schidem S, Zellmann H, Schneider F, Heuser I. Psychosocial care of refugees in Germany : Insights from the emergency relief and development aid. Nervenarzt. 2017 Apr 12.
  • Schneider F, Bajbouj M, Heinz A. Mental treatment of refugees in Germany: Model for a stepped approach. Nervenarzt. 2017 Jan;88(1):10-17. 


  • Feeser M, Fan Y, Weigand A, Hahn A, Gärtner M, Böker H, Grimm S, Bajbouj M. Oxytocin improves mentalizing–Pronounced effects for individuals with attenuated ability to empathize. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 2015; 53: 223-32
  • Gärtner M, Grimm S, Bajbouj M. Frontal midline theta oscillations during mental arithmetic: effects of stress. Front Behav Neurosci. 2015 Apr 20;9:96.
  • Fan Y, Pestke K, Feeser M, Aust S, Pruessner JC, Böker H, Bajbouj M, Grimm S.  Amygdala-Hippocampal Connectivity Changes During Acute Psychosocial Stress: Joint Effect of Early Life Stress and Oxytocin. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2015 Nov;40(12):2736-44.
  • Wiebking C, de Greck M, Duncan NW, Tempelmann C, Bajbouj M, Northoff G. Interoception in insula subregions as a possible state marker for depression-an exploratory fMRI study investigating healthy, depressed and remitted participants. Front Behav Neurosci. 2015 Apr 10;9:82.
  • Grimm S, Gärtner M, Fuge P, Fan Y, Weigand A, Feeser M, Aust S, Heekeren HR, Jacobs A, Heuser I, Bajbouj M. Variation in the corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1) gene modulates age effects on working memory. J Psychiatr Res. 2015 Feb;61:57-63.
  • Schomers MR, Kirilina E, Weigand A, Bajbouj M, Pulvermüller F. Causal Influence of Articulatory Motor Cortex on Comprehending Single Spoken Words: TMS  Evidence. Cereb Cortex. 2015; 25(10):3894-902
  • Otte C, Wingenfeld K, Kuehl LK, Kaczmarczyk M, Richter S, Quante A, Regen F, Bajbouj M, Zimmermann-Viehoff F, Wiedemann K, Hinkelmann K. Mineralocorticoid receptor stimulation improves cognitive function and decreases cortisol secretion in depressed patients and healthy individuals. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2015 Jan;40(2):386-93.
  • Aust S, Palm U, Padberg F, Bajbouj M. Transcranial direct current stimulation for depressive disorders. Nervenarzt. 2015 Dec;86(12):1492-9.
  • Brakemeier EL, Merkl A, Wilbertz G, Quante A, Regen F, Bührsch N, Hall Fv, Kischkel E, Anghelescu I, Danker-Hopfe H, Heuser I, Kathmann N, Bajbouj M. Reply to: Continuation Antidepressant Strategies After Electroconvulsive Therapy: Ultrabrief Pulse Versus Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy. Biol Psychiatry. 2015 Feb 1;77(3):e9.


  • Brakemeier EL, Merkl A, Wilbertz G, Quante A, Regen F, Bührsch N, van Hall F, Kischkel E, Danker-Hopfe H, Anghelescu I, Heuser I, Kathmann N, Bajbouj M. Cognitive-behavioral therapy as continuation treatment to sustain response after  electroconvulsive therapy in depression: a randomized controlled trial. Biol Psychiatry. 2014 Aug 1;76(3):194-202.
  • Fuge P, Aust S, Fan Y, Weigand A, Gärtner M, Feeser M, Bajbouj M, Grimm S. Interaction of early life stress and corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor gene: effects on working memory. Biol Psychiatry. 2014 Dec 1;76(11):888-94.
  • Fan Y, Herrera-Melendez AL, Pestke K, Feeser M, Aust S, Otte C, Pruessner JC,  Böker H, Bajbouj M, Grimm S. Early life stress modulates amygdala-prefrontal functional connectivity: implications for oxytocin effects. Hum Brain Mapp. 2014  Oct;35(10):5328-39.
  • Aust S, Haertwig EA, Koelsch S, Heekeren HR, Heuser I, Bajbouj M. How Emotional Abilities Modulate the Influence of Early Life Stress on Hippocampal Functioning. Social Cognitive Affective Neuroscience, 2014; ;9(7):1038-45.
  • Gärtner M, Bajbouj M. Encoding-related EEG oscillations during memory formation are modulated by mood state. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci. 2014 Dec;9(12):1934-41.
  • Grimm S, Pestke K, Feeser M, Aust S, Weigand A, Wang J, Wingenfeld K,Pruessner JC, La Marca R, Böker H, Bajbouj M. Early life stress modulates oxytocin effects on limbic system during acute psychosocial stress. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci. 2014 Nov;9(11):1828-35.
  • Gärtner M, Rohde-Liebenau L, Grimm S, Bajbouj M. Working memory-related frontal theta activity is decreased under acute stress. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2014 May;43:105-13.
  • Feeser M, Prehn K, Kazzer P, Mungee A, Bajbouj M. Transcranial direct currentstimulation enhances cognitive control during emotion regulation. Brain Stimul.2014 Jan-Feb;7(1):105-12.
  • Aust S, Stasch J, Jentschke S, Alkan Härtwig E, Koelsch S, Heuser I, Bajbouj M. Differential effects of early life stress on hippocampus and amygdala volume as a function of emotional abilities. Hippocampus. 2014 Sep;24(9):1094-101.
  • Feeser M, Fan Y, Weigand A, Hahn A, Gärtner M, Aust S, Böker H, Bajbouj M, Grimm S. The beneficial effect of oxytocin on avoidance-related facial emotion recognition depends on early life stress experience. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2014 Dec;231(24):4735-44.
  • Mungee A, Kazzer P, Feeser M, Nitsche MA, Schiller D, Bajbouj M. Transcranial direct current stimulation of the prefrontal cortex: a means to modulate fear memories. Neuroreport. 2014 May 7;25(7):480-4.
  • Fuge P, Grimm S, Weigand A, Fan Y, Gärtner M, Feeser M, Bajbouj M. Assessment of age-related changes in cognitive functions using EmoCogMeter, a novel tablet-computer based approach. J Vis Exp. 2014 Feb 14;(84):e50942.
  • Neumann WJ, Huebl J, Brücke C, Gabriëls L, Bajbouj M, Merkl A, Schneider GH, Nuttin B, Brown P, Kühn AA. Different patterns of local field potentials from limbic DBS targets in patients with major depressive and obsessive compulsive disorder. Mol Psychiatry. 2014 Nov;19(11):1186-92.
  • Dukart J, Regen F, Kherif F, Colla M, Bajbouj M, Heuser I, Frackowiak RS, Draganski B. Electroconvulsive therapy-induced brain plasticity determines therapeutic outcome in mood disorders. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Jan 21;111(3):1156-61.
  • Seehausen M, Kazzer P, Bajbouj M, Heekeren HR, Jacobs AM, Klann-Delius G, Menninghaus W, Prehn K. Talking about social conflict in the MRI scanner: neural correlates of being empathized with. Neuroimage. 2014 Jan 1;84:951-61.
  • Wiebking C, Duncan NW, Tiret B, Hayes DJ, Marjaǹska M, Doyon J, Bajbouj M,Northoff G. GABA in the insula - a predictor of the neural response to interoceptive awareness. Neuroimage. 2014 Feb 1;86:10-8.
  • Prehn K, Korn CW, Bajbouj M, Klann-Delius G, Menninghaus W, Jacobs AM, Heekeren HR. The neural correlates of emotion alignment in social interaction. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci. 2014; 10(3):435-43
  • Wiebking C, Duncan NW, Qin P, Hayes DJ, Lyttelton O, Gravel P, Verhaeghe J,Kostikov AP, Schirrmacher R, Reader AJ, Bajbouj M, Northoff G. External awarenessand GABA--a multimodal imaging study combining fMRI and [18F]flumazenil-PET. Hum Brain Mapp. 2014 Jan;35(1):173-84.
  • Bajbouj M, Padberg F. A perfect match: noninvasive brain stimulation and psychotherapy. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2014 Nov;264 Suppl 1:S27-33 


  • Bajbouj M, Rzesnitzek L. Neurowissenschaftliche Grundlagen der artifiziellen Modulation von Emotionen Enzyklopädie der Psychologie. Emotionale und Kognitive Neurowissenschaften Hogrefe Verlag (Hrsg. Kölsch, Schröger) 2013
  • Bajbouj M. Option bei schwerer Anorexia nervosa?. Info Neurologie und Psychiatrie, June 2013, Volume 15, Issue 6, pp 35–35
  • Bajbouj M. Vom experimentellen Ansatz zur wirksamen Therapieoption. Info Neurologie und Psychiatrie October 2013, Volume 15, Issue 10, pp 51–58
  • Bajbouj M. Schnell wirksame Antidepressiva. NeuroTransmitter 24(11):48-51
  • Merkl A, Schneider GH, Schönecker T, Aust S, Kühl KP, Kupsch A, Kühn AA,Bajbouj M. Antidepressant effects after short-term and chronic stimulation of the subgenual cingulate gyrus in treatment-resistant depression. Exp Neurol. 2013Nov;249:160-8.
  • Weigand A, Richtermeier A, Feeser M, Guo JS, Briesemeister BB, Grimm S,Bajbouj M. State-dependent effects of prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on emotional working memory. Brain Stimul. 2013 Nov;6(6):905-12.
  • Weigand A, Feeser M, Gaertner M, Brandt E, Fan Y, Fuge P, Böker H, Bajbouj M*, Grimm S*. Effects of intranasal oxytocin prior to encoding and retrieval on recognition memory. Psychopharmacology,). 2013 May;227(2):321-9.
  • Weigand A, Grimm S, Astalosch A, Guo JS, Briesemeister BB, Lisanby SH, Luber B, Bajbouj M. Lateralized effects of prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on emotional working memory. Exp Brain Res. 2013 May;227(1):43-52.
  • Aust S, Filip K, Koelsch S, Grimm S, Bajbouj M. Music in depression: Neural correlates of emotional experience in remitted depression. World J Psychiatry. 2013 Jun 22;3(2):8-17.
  • Aust S, Alkan Härtwig E, Heuser I, Bajbouj M. The Role of Early Emotional Neglect in Alexithymia. Psychological Trauma, 05/2013; 5(3):225-232.
  • Alkan Härtwig E, Aust S, Heuser I (2013). HPA system activity in alexithymia: a cortisol awakening response study. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 38(10):2121-6.
  • Matejka M, Kazzer P, Seehausen M, Bajbouj M, Klann-Delius G, Menninghaus W, Jacobs AM, Heekeren HR, Prehn K. Talking about Emotion: Prosody and Skin Conductance Indicate Emotion Regulation. Front Psychol. 2013 May 10;4:260. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00260.
  • Eggert T, Dorn H, Sauter C, Nitsche MA, Bajbouj M, Danker-Hopfe H. No effectsof slow oscillatory transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) onsleep-dependent memory consolidation in healthy elderly subjects. Brain Stimul.2013 Nov;6(6):938-45.
  • Schulze L, Dziobek I, Vater A, Heekeren HR, Bajbouj M, ReNneberg B, Heuser I, Roepke S. Gray matter abnormalities in patients with narcissistic personality disorder. J Psychiatr Res. 2013 Oct;47(10):1363-9.
  • Qin P, Grimm S, Duncan NW, Holland G, Guo JS, Fan Y, Weigand A, Baudewig J, Bajbouj M, Northoff G. Self-specific stimuli interact differently than non-self-specific stimuli with eyes-open versus eyes-closed spontaneous activity  in auditory cortex. Front Hum Neurosci. 2013 Jul 29;7:437.
  • Zeugmann S, Buehrsch N, Bajbouj M, Heuser I, Anghelescu I, Quante A.Childhood maltreatment and adult proinflammatory status in patients with major depression. Psychiatr Danub. 2013 Sep;25(3):227-35.
  • Ernst J., Böker H., Hättenschwyler J., Schüpbach D., Northoff G., Seifritz E., Grimm S. (2013). The association of interoceptive awareness and alexithymia with neurotransmitter concentrations in insula and anterior cingulate. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci 9(6): 857-63.


  • Grimm S, Weigand A, Kazzer P, Jacobs A, Bajbouj M. Neural Mechanisms underlying the Integration of Emotion and Working Memory. NeuroImage, 2012, 16;61(4):1188-94.
  • Grimm S, Luborzewski A, Schubert F, Merkl A, Kronenberg G, Colla M, Heuser I, Bajbouj M. Region-specific glutamate changes in patients with unipolar depression. J Psychiatr Res. 2012 May 15. 46(8):1059-65.
  • Seehausen M, Kazzer P, Bajbouj M, Prehn K. Effects of empathic paraphrasing - extrinsic emotion regulation in social conflict. Front Psychol. 2012;3:482. Epub 2012 Nov 12. 
  • Hellmann J, Jüttner R, Roth C, Bajbouj M, Kirste I, Heuser I, Gertz K, Endres  M, Kronenberg G. Repetitive magnetic stimulation of human-derived neuron-like cells activates cAMP-CREB pathway. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2012, Feb;262(1):87-91.
  • Peth J, Regen F, Bajbouj M, Heuser I, Anghelescu I, Hornung OP. The influence of daytime napping versus controlled activity on the subjective well-being of patients with major depression. Psychiatry Res. 2012 Dec 30;200(2-3):368-73. 
  • Roepke S, Bajbouj M. Pulse-frequency and antidepressant efficacy in electroconvulsive therapy. J ECT. 2012 Jun;28(2):142-3. 
  • Neuhaus AH, Bajbouj M. Memory enhancement and deep-brain stimulation of the entorhinal area. N Engl J Med. 2012 May 17;366(20):1945  
  • Bajbouj M, Asasleh M. Emotional Disorders in a Transcultural World. Paragrama. 2012, 20 (2) 279-286
  • Ernst J., Northoff G., Böker H., Seifritz E., Grimm S. (2012). Interoceptive Awareness enhances neural activity during empathy. Hum Brain Mapp 34(7): 1615- 1624.                                                                                        
  • Schuepbach D., Skotchko T., Duschek S., Theodoridou A., Grimm S., Boeker H., Seifritz E. (2012). Gender and Rapid Alterations of Hemispheric Dominance during Planning. Neuropsychobiology 66(3): 149-157.                             
  • Scheidegger M., Walter M., Lehmann M., Metzger C., Grimm S., Boeker H., Boesiger P., Henning A., Seifritz E. (2012). Ketamine decreases resting state functional connectivity between networks via the dorsal nexus: implications for major depression. PLOS One 7(9): e44799.                                            
  • Boeker H., Schulze J., Richter A., Schuepbach D., Grimm S. (2012). Sustained cognitive impairments after clinical recovery of severe Depression. J Nerv Ment Dis 200(9): 773- 776. 


  • Merkl A, Bajbouj M. The Paradox of Electroconvulsive Therapy. In Kapur N, Pascual-Leone A, Ramachandran V, Cole J. The Paradoxical Brain. Cambridge University Press
  • Bajbouj M, . Meyer-Sickendiek. Grübeln. In Albers I, Dziobek I, Hurtzig H (Herausgeber). Fühlt Weniger! Dialoge über Emotionen. Theater der Zeit Verlag 2011
  • Rzesnitzek L, Bajbouj M. Schizophrenie und Neuroborelliose. NeuroTransmitter 22(2):48-51
  • Merkl A, Schubert F, Quante A, Luborzewski A, Brakemeier EL, Grimm S, Heuser I, Bajbouj M. Abnormal Cingulate and Prefrontal Cortical Neurochemistry in Major Depression after Electroconvulsive Therapy. Biol Psychiatry, 2011 15;69(8):772-9.
  • Grimm S, Schubert F, Jaedke M, Gallinat J, Bajbouj M. Prefrontal cortex glutamate and extraversion. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci. 201,;7(7):811-8.
  • Quante A, Luborzewski A, Brakemeier EL, Merkl A, Danker-Hopfe H, Bajbouj M. Effects of 3 different stimulus intensities of ultrabrief stimuli in right unilateral electroconvulsive therapy in major depression: A randomized, double-blind pilot study. J Psychiatr Res. 2011 45(2):174-8.
  • Sauter C, Dorn H, Bahr A, Hansen ML, Peter A, Bajbouj M, Danker-Hopfe H. Effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields emitted by GSM 900 and WCDMA mobile phones on cognitive function in young male subjects. Bioelectromagnetics. 2011 Apr;32(3):179-90. 
  • Bajbouj M, Latifa Y,Alabdullah J. Treatment of major depression with Neuromodulation. Arab Journal Psychiatry, 2011, 23(2): 170-3
  • Misteli M., Duschek S., Richter A., Rezk M., Grimm S., Kraehenmann R., Boeker H., Seifritz E. Schuepbach D. (2011). Gender characteristics of cerebral hemodynamics during complex cognitive functioning. Brain Cogn 76(1): 123- 130.   
  • Grimm S., Ernst J., Boesiger P., Beck J., Schuepbach D., Hell D., Boeker H., Northoff G. (2011). Reduced negative BOLD responses in the default- mode network and the default-mode network and increased self-focus in depression. World J Biol Psychiatry 12(8): 627- 637.    

2010 and before

  • Richter A., Grimm S., Northoff G. (2010). Lorazepam modulates orbitofrontal signal changes during emotional processing in catatonia. Hum Psychopharmacol 25(1): 55- 62.     
  • Heinzel A., Northoff G., Boeker H., Boesiger P., Grimm S. (2010). Emotional processing and executive functions in major depressive disorder: Dorsal prefrontal activity correlates with performance in the Intra-Extra Dimensional Set Shift (IED). Acta Neuropsychiatr 22(6): 269- 279.
  • Schuepbach D., Huizinga M., Duschek S., Grimm S., Boeker H., Hell D. (2009). Rapid cerebral hemodynamic modulation during set shifting: Evidence of time- locked associations with cognitive control in females. Brain Cogn 71(3): 313- 319.
  • Heinzel A., Grimm S., Beck J., Schuepbach D., Hell D., Boesiger P., Boeker H., Northoff G. (2009). Segregated neural representation of psychological and somatic-vegetative symptoms in severe Major Depression. Neurosci Lett 456(2): 49-53.
  • Grimm S., Ernst J., Boesiger P., Beck J., Schuepbach D., Hell D., Boeker H., Northoff G. (2009). Increased self-focus in major depressive disorder is related to neural abnormalities in subcortical-cortical midline structures. Hum Brain Mapp 30(8): 2617- 2627.
  • Walter M., Henning A., Grimm S., Schulte R., Beck J., Dydak U., Schnepf B., Boeker H., Boesiger P., Northoff G. (2009). The relationship between aberrant neuronal activation patterns in the pregenual anterior cingulate, altered glutamatergic metabolism and anhedonia in Major Depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry 66(5): 478-486.
  • Grimm S., Boesiger P., Beck J., Schuepbach D., Bermpohl F., Walter M., Ernst J., Hell D., Boeker H., Northoff G. (2009). Altered Negative BOLD- responses in the default- mode network during emotion processing in depressed subjects. Neuropsychopharmacology 34(4): 932- 943.
  • Grimm S., Beck J., Schuepbach D., Hell D., Boesiger P., Niehaus L., Boeker H., Northoff G. (2008). Imbalance between left and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in major depression is linked to negative emotional judgement. An fMRI study in severe major depressive disorder. Biol Psychiatry 63(4): 369- 376.
  • Northoff G., Walter M., Schulte R., Beck J., Dydak U., Henning A., Boeker H., Grimm S., Boesiger P. (2007). GABA concentration in the human anterior cingulate cortex predicts negative BOLD response in fMRI. Nat Neurosci 10(12): 1515- 1517.
  • Northoff G., Grimm S., Boeker H., Schmidt C., Bermpohl F., Heinzel A., Hell D., Boesiger P. (2006) Affective judgment and beneficial decision making: Ventromedial prefrontal activity correlates with performance in the Iowa Gambling Task. Hum Brain Mapp 27(7): 572- 587.
  • Grimm S., Schmidt C., Bermpohl F., Heinzel A., Dahlem Y., Wyss M., Hell D., Boesiger P., Boeker H., Northoff G. (2006) Segregated neural representation of distinct emotion dimensions in the prefrontal cortex – An fMRI study. Neuroimage 30 (1): 325-340.
  • Northoff G., Richter A., Bermpohl F., Grimm S., Martin E., Marcar V.L., Wahl C., Hell D., and Boeker H. (2005) NMDA hypofunction in the posterior cingulate as a model for schizophrenia: an exploratory ketamine administration study in fMRI. Schizophr Res 72(2-3), 235-248.
  • Merkl A, Ammelburg N, Aust S, Roepke S, Reinecker H, Trahms L, Heuser I, Sander T (2010). Processing of visual stimuli in borderline personality disorder: a combined behavioural and magnetoencephalographic study. Int J Psychophysiol. 78(3), 257-64
  • Bajbouj M. Unipolare Depression. In Facharztprüfung Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie (Herausgeber: Jürgen Gallinat), Springer Verlag, 1. Auflage 2010
  • Bajbouj M, Merkl A, Schlaepfer TE, Frick C, Zobel A, Maier W, O'Keane V, Corcoran C, Adolfsson R, Trimble M, Rau H, Hoff HJ, Padberg F, Müller-Siecheneder F, Audenaert K, van den Abbeele D, Matthews K, Christmas D, Eljamel S, Heuser I.  Two-year outcome of vagus nerve stimulation in treatment-resistant depression. J  Clin Psychopharmacol. 2010;30(3):273-81. 
  • Grimm S, Bajbouj M. Efficacy of vagus nerve stimulation in the treatment of depression. Expert Rev Neurother. 2010 Jan;10(1):87-92.
  • Bajbouj M, Heuser I. Stimulating the brain to treat depression. Exp Neurol. 2009 Sep;219(1):1.
  • Colla M, Schubert F, Bubner M, Heidenreich JO, Bajbouj M, Seifert F, Luborzewski A, Heuser I, Kronenberg G. Glutamate as a spectroscopic marker of hippocampal structural plasticity is elevated in long-term euthymic bipolar patients on chronic lithium therapy and correlates inversely with diurnal cortisol. Mol Psychiatry. 2009 Jul;14(7):696-704,   
  • Merkl A, Heuser I, Bajbouj M. Antidepressant electroconvulsive therapy:mechanism of action, recent advances and limitations. Exp Neurol. 2009 Sep;219(1):20-6.
  • Lang UE, Hellweg R, Bajbouj M, Gaus V, Sander T, Gallinat J. Gender dependent association of a functional NGF polymorphism with anxiety-related personality traits. Pharmacopsychiatry 2008, 1(5):196-9
  • Merkl A, Bajbouj M. Antidepressant Brain Stimulation Techniques. Current Psychiatry Reviews 4(4):209-218
  • Jakob F, Brakemeier EL, Schommer NC, Quante A, Merkl A, Danker-Hopfe H, Anghelescu I, Heuser I, Bajbouj M. Ultrahigh frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in unipolar depression. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2008;28(4):474-6. 
  • Lang UE, Hellweg R, Gallinat J, Bajbouj M. Acute prefrontal cortex transcranial magnetic stimulation in healthy volunteers: no effects on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentrations in serum. J Affect Disord. 2008;107(1-3):255-8. 
  • Schlaepfer TE, Frick C, Zobel A, Maier W, Heuser I, Bajbouj M, O'Keane V, Corcoran C, Adolfsson R, Trimble M, Rau H, Hoff HJ, Padberg F, Müller-Siecheneder F, Audenaert K, Van den Abbeele D, Matthews K, Christmas D, Stanga Z, Hasdemir M. Vagus nerve stimulation for depression: efficacy and safety in a European study. Psychol Med. 2008 May;38(5):651-61
  • Brakemeier EL, Wilbertz G, Rodax S, Danker-Hopfe H, Zinka B, Zwanzger P, Grossheinrich N, Várkuti B, Rupprecht R, Bajbouj M, Padberg F. Patterns of response to repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in major depression: Replication study in drug-free patients. J Affect Disord. 2008 May;108(1-2):59-70.
  • Dettling M, Anghelescu I, Bajbouj M. Electroconvulsive therapy for depression. N Engl J Med. 2008 Feb 7;358(6):645                  
  • Brakemeier EL, Bajbouj M. Tiefe Hirnstimulation (Kapitel 4.6). Behandlungsmanual therapieresistente Depressionen; Herausgeber: Tom Bschor. Kohlhammer Verlag. 1. Auflage 2007
  • Brakemeier EL, Bajbouj M. Repetitive transkranielle Magnetstimulation (Kapitel 4.2). Behandlungsmanual therapieresistente Depressionen; Herausgeber: Tom Bschor. Kohlhammer Verlag. 1. Auflage 2007
  • Bajbouj M. Elektrokonvulsionstherapie (Kapitel 4.1). Behandlungsmanual therapieresistente Depressionen; Herausgeber: Tom Bschor. Kohlhammer Verlag. 1. Auflage 2007
  • Brakemeier EL, Bajbouj M. Chronische Depressionen: Möglichkeiten und Grenzen von psychotherapeutischen und biologischen Behandlungen. In: Psychotherapie affektiver Störungen. Herausgeber: Olivier M. Elmer. DGVT Verlag. 1. Auflage 2007
  • Bajbouj M. Psychiatrische Erkrankungen (Kapitel 30). Transkranielle Magnetstimulation; Herausgeber: Hartwig Siebner, Ulf Ziemann. Springer Verlag. 1.Auflage 2007
  • Lang UE*, Bajbouj M*, Sander T, Gallinat J. Gender-Dependent Association of the Functional Catechol-O-Methyltransferase Val158Met Genotype with Sensation Seeking Personality Trait. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2007 Sep;32(9):1950-5.
  • Gallinat J, Schubert F, Lang UE, Neu P, Kienast T, Kunz D, Bajbouj M. Impact of in vivo measured cerebral glutamate on human behaviour: the sensation seeking personality trait. NeuroImage, 2007;34(2):671-8
  • Bajbouj M, Gallinat J, Vesper J, Hellen FE, Lisanby SH, Danker-Hopfe H, Neu P. Motor cortex excitability after vagus nerve stimulation in major depression. J Clin Psychopharmacol, 2007;27(2):156-9.
  • Brakemeier EL, Luborzewski A, Danker-Hopfe H, Kathmann N, Bajbouj M. Positive predictors for antidepressive response to prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). J Psychiatr Res. 2007;41(5):395-403
  • Luborzewski A, Schubert F, Seifert F, Danker-Hopfe H, Brakemeier EL, Schlattmann P, Anghelescu I, Colla M, Bajbouj M. Metabolic alterations in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex after treatment with high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with unipolar major depression. J Psychiatr Res. 2007;41(7):606-15.
  • Gallinat J, Lang UE, Jacobsen LK, Bajbouj M, Kalus P, von Haebler D, Seifert F, Schubert F.Abnormal hippocampal neurochemistry in smokers: evidence from proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 3 T. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2007 Feb;27(1):80-4.
  • Quante A, Zeugmann S, Bajbouj M, Anghelescu I. Clozapine in medication- and electroconvulsive therapy-resistant, depressed inpatients: a case series. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2007 Dec;27(6):715-7.
  • Gallinat J, Götz T, Kalus P, Bajbouj M, Sander T, Winterer G. Genetic variations of the NR3A subunit of the NMDA receptor modulate prefrontal cerebral activity in humans. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 2007 Jan;19(1):59-68.
  • Lang UE, Sander T, Lohoff FW, Hellweg R, Bajbouj M, Winterer G, Gallinat J. Association of the met66 allele of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) with smoking. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2007 Mar;190(4):433-9
  • Fieder U, Bajbouj M. Neuromodulation via vagal nerve stimulation in depression. Journal für Neurologie, Neurochirurgie und Psychiatrie, 2007; 8(4), 22-28
  • Bajbouj M. Transcranial Brain Stimulation for Treatment of Psychiatric Disorders. Psychneuroendocrinology 2007; epub 18.06.2007
  • Merkl A, Brakemeier EL, Danker-Hopfe H, Bajbouj M. Vagus Nerve Stimulation improves Restless Legs Syndrome associated with Major Depression. J Clin Psychiatry, 2007 Apr;68(4):635-6.
  • Peter A, Hansen ML, Merkl A, Voigtländer S, Bajbouj M, Danker-Hopfe H. REM sleep behavior disorder and excessive startle reaction to visual stimuli in a patient with pontine lesions. Sleep Med. 2007, 289(6):697-700
  • Neuhaus AH, Luborzewski A, Rentzsch J, Brakemeier EL, Gallinat J, Bajbouj M. P300 is enhanced in responders to vagus nerve stimulation for treatment of major depressive disorder. J Affect Disord. 2007; 100 (1-3): 123-8
  • Bajbouj M, Lisanby SH, Lang UE, Danker-Hopfe H, Heuser I, Neu P. Evidence for impaired cortical inhibition in patients with unipolar major depression. Biol Psychiatry. 2006; 59(5):395-400.
  • Lang UE*, Bajbouj M*, Gallinat J, Hellweg R. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor serum concentrations in depressive patients during vagus nerve stimulation and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2006; 187(1):56-9.
  • Bajbouj M, Lang UE, Niehaus L, Hellen FE, Heuser I, Neu P. Effects of right unilateral electroconvulsive therapy on motor cortical excitability in depressive patients. J Psychiatr Res. 2006; 40(4):322-7.
  • De Castro A*, Bajbouj M*, Schlattmann P, Neu P Cerebrovascular Reactivity in Depressed Patients without Vascular Risk Factors. J Psychiatr Res 2006 17; 42(1):78-82
  • Schwertfeger N, Neu P, Schlattmann P, Lemke H, Heuser I, Bajbouj M. Cerebrovascular reactivity over time course in healthy subjects, J Neurol Science 2006;249(2):135-9
  • Neuhaus A, Bajbouj M, Kienast T, Kalus P, von Haebler D, Winterer G, Gallinat J. Persistent dysfunctional frontal lobe activation in former smokers. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2006 Jun;186(2):191-200.  
  • Bajbouj M, Luborzewski A, Heuser I. Stimulationsverfahren zur Behandlung von Depressionen. Neuroforum, 2006 12(2): 184-189
  • Brakemeier EL, Luborzewski A, Danker-Hopfe H, Bajbouj M. Optimizing prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) as a treatment for depression: Which parameters predict a response? Nervenheilkunde 2006; 25: 626 – 33
  • Bajbouj M, Danker-Hopfe H. Maintenance treatment of depression in old age. N Engl J Med. 2006 Jun 8;354(23):2505-6.                       
  • Bajbouj M, Danker-Hopfe H, Heuser I, Anghelescu I. Long-term outcome of vagus nerve stimulation in rapid-cycling bipolar disorder. J Clin Psychiatry 2006; 67: 837-8
  • Bajbouj M, Brakemeier EL, Schubert F, Lang UE, Neu P, Schindowski C, Danker-Hopfe H. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and cortical excitability in patients with major depressive disorder. Exp Neurol. 2005; 196(2):332-8. 
  • Neu P*, Bajbouj M*, Schilling A, Godemann F, Berman RM, Schlattmann P. Cognitive function over the treatment course of depression in middle-aged patients: correlation with brain MRI signal hyperintensities. J Psychiatr Res. 2005; 39(2):129-35.
  • Neu P, Heuser I, Bajbouj M. Cerebral blood flow during vagus nerve stimulation--a transcranial Doppler study. Neuropsychobiology. 2005; 51(4):265-8.
  • Gallinat J, Strohle A, Lang UE, Bajbouj M, Kalus P, Montag C, Seifert F, Wernicke C, Rommelspacher H, Rinneberg H, Schubert F. Association of human hippocampal neurochemistry, serotonin transporter genetic variation, and anxiety. Neuroimage. 2005 May 15;26(1):123-31
  • Lang UE, Hellweg R, Kalus P, Bajbouj M, Lenzen KP, Sander T, Kunz D, Gallinat J. Association of a functional BDNF polymorphism and anxiety-related personality traits. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2005 Jun;180(1):95-9.
  • Neuhaus AH, Gallinat J, Bajbouj M, Reischies FM. Interictal slow-wave focus in left medial temporal lobe during bilateral electroconvulsive therapy. Neuropsychobiology. 2005;52(4):183-9.
  • Bajbouj M, Heuser I. Vagus nerve stimulation, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, and electroconvulsive therapy in the treatment of depressive disorders Nervenarzt. 2005 Jan;76(1):28-35.
  • Bajbouj M, Lang UE, Neu P, Heuser I. Therapeutic brain stimulation and cortical excitability in depressed patients. Am J Psychiatry. 2005 Nov;162(11):2192-3.  
  • Bajbouj M, Luborzewski A, Danker-Hopfe H, Lang UE. Motor cortical excitability in depressive patients after electroconvulsive therapy and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. J ECT. 2005 Dec;21(4):243-5
  • Regen F, Bajbouj M, Anghelescu I, Folkerts H. For and against: broader indication of electroconvulsive therapy. Psychiatr Prax. 2005 Nov;32(8):378-80. 
  • Bajbouj M, Gallinat J, Niehaus L, Lang UE, Roricht S, Meyer BU. Abnormalities of inhibitory neuronal mechanisms in the motor cortex of patients with schizophrenia. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2004; 37(2):74-80.
  • Lang UE, Bajbouj M, Wernicke C, Rommelspacher H, Danker-Hopfe H, Gallinat J. No association of a functional polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene promoter and anxiety-related personality traits. Neuropsychobiology. 2004;49(4):182-4. 
  • Bajbouj M, Gallinat J, Lang UE, Neu P, Niehaus L. Motorcortical excitability after electroconvulsive therapy in patients with major depressive disorder. Clin Neurophysiol. 2003;56:433-40. 
  • Gallinat J, Bajbouj M, Sander T, Schlattmann P, Xu K, Ferro EF, Goldman D, Winterer G. Association of the G1947A COMT (Val(108/158)Met) gene polymorphism with prefrontal P300 during information processing. Biol Psychiatry. 2003 Jul 1;54(1):40-8. 
  • Gericke CA, Lang UE, Steckler T, Schulze G, Bajbouj M, Hellweg R. Nerve growth factor response to excitotoxic lesion of the cholinergic basal forebrain is slightly impaired in aged rats. J Neural Transm. 2003;110(6):627-39
  • Niehaus L, Bajbouj M, Meyer BU. Impact of interhemispheric inhibition on excitability of the non-lesioned motor cortex after acute stroke. Clin Neurophysiol. 2003;56:181-6. 
  • Lang UE, Gallinat J, Danker-Hopfe H, Bajbouj M, Hellweg R. Nerve growth factor serum concentrations in healthy human volunteers: physiological variance and stability. Neurosci Lett. 2003 Jun 19;344(1):13-6.
  • Gallinat J, Mulert C, Bajbouj M, Herrmann WM, Schunter J, Senkowski D, Moukhtieva R, Kronfeldt D, Winterer G. Frontal and temporal dysfunction of auditory stimulus processing in schizophrenia. Neuroimage. 2002 Sep;17(1):110-27.

Head of Research

Prof. Dr. med. Malek Bajbouj

Professor of Brain Stimulation/Neurophysiology


You may contact us as follows:
t: +49 30 450 517 542
f: +49 30 450 517 942

Postal adress:

Research Group
Affective Neuroscience/
Emotion Modulation
c/o Prof. Dr. med.
Malek Bajbouj

Psychiatry CBF Charité
Hindenburgdamm 30
12203 Berlin

Campus Freie Universität Berlin: Habelschwerdter Allee 45, 14197 Berlin